Adeesh Jain Pace Period 1 02/3/10 AP Biology Chapter 42 Guided Reading 1. Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems. Be certain focus on advantages of each. Open and closed circulatory systems have the following components: blood, blood vessels, and a heart. In an open system, the blood bathes each of the organs directly while in a closed system it remains in arteries and goes to each organ by diffusion. A closed system is much more advantageous as it is more efficient. In a open system, there is no difference between blood and interstitial fluid. 2. Contrast arteries, arterioles, capillaries and venules and veins. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body. In each organ, arteries branch out into arterioles and carry blood throughout the organ. Arterioles become capillaries which have thin walls to allow for diffusion of blood. Capillaries will become venules which then become veins to carry blood back to the heart. 3. Contrast the vertebrate circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, non-avian reptiles and mammals/birds. Fishes have two chambers in their heart; one ventricle and one atrium. Blood is pumped from the ventricle, travels to the gills, picks up oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide and goes to the rest of the body and returns to the heart. Amphibians have three chambered hearts with two atria and one ventricle. The ventricle pumps blood into a forked artery; one which goes to the systemic circuit and the other pulmocutaneous circuit. Reptiles have double circulation with pulmonary circuits and a systematic circuit. They have three chambered hearts. In mammals and birds, the ventricle is divided into left and right chambers. The left side receives and pumps oxygen-rich blood while the right side only pumps oxygen-poor blood. 4. What is the advantage to double circulation? The advantage is that double circulation proves a vigorous flow of blood to organs because the blood is pumped a second time after it loses pressure in the capillary veins.
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