Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry
...Introduction Discovering and bringing one new drug to the public typically costs a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company from £800 million to more than £1 billion and takes an average of 10 to 15 years. The drug discovery and development process is designed to ensure that only those pharmaceutical products that are both safe and effective are brought to market. PPD provides a broad array of drug discovery and development services and products to pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device companies to expedite drug development, from drug discovery through clinical studies and post-approval support. New drugs begin in the laboratory with scientists, including chemists and pharmacologists, who identify cellular and genetic factors that play a role in specific diseases. They search for chemical and biological substances that target these biological markers and are likely to have drug-like effects. Out of every 5,000 new compounds identified during the discovery process, approximately five are considered safe for testing in human volunteers after preclinical evaluations. After three to six years of further clinical testing in patients, only one of these compounds on average is ultimately approved as a marketed drug for treatment. The following sequence of research activities begins the process that results in development of new medicines: •Target Identification. Drugs usually act on either cellular or genetic chemicals in the body, known as targets, which are believed...
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Introduction to Sugar Industry
...Introduction The world sugar market is experiencing considerable changes in prices. The global sugar stocks, which had been plunging constantly, experienced its lowest in 2010-11 at 165.68 million tonnes. This was due to the drought conditions occuring throughout the world, leading to lower production. However, high demands for sugar has caused a surge in the market prices. World sugar prices dropped in 2012, due to a “bumper crop” around the globe which lead to the decrease in international sugar prices. In 2012 the global production increased by 6% to 171 mn tn from 162 mn tn when comparison to the last year. Increase in production will be seen in 2012-13 majorly due to the rise in production in Brazil and China. International demand for sugar is anticipated to highten in 2012-13 but at a slow rate. Brazil is the major producer and exporter of sugar, and is termed as the "global trading nation". Brazil has acquired a position as the "price-setter" in the world sugar market. Recently, the production costs increased in Brazil and in other major export countries like Australia and Thailand, which has resulted in an increase in the value of their currency in comparison to dollars. In India, sugar production increased by 6.6% in 2011-12 to 26 mn tn from 24.4 mn tn when compared to the previous year. The country's production will surpass the domestic consumption in 2012-13 season that starts in October. Although the production decreased in Maharashtra and Karnataka......
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...DETAILED PROJECT REPORT OF 2500 TCD SUGAR WITH 14 MW COGENERATION PLANT For OM SUGARS PVT LTD., BC – 132 LODGE ROAD, BOGARVES CAMP, BELGAUM By Ugar Consultancy Ltd., Ugar Khurd, Tq Athani Dist Belgaum MAY 2011 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROJECT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. INTRODUCTION NEED FOR THE PROJECT SUGAR CANE AVAILABILITY PRODUCT SALE POLICY TECHNO COMMERCIAL ASPECTS LOCATION AND SITE ASSOCIATED DETAILS TECHNICAL FEATURES (SPECIFICATIONS) OF MAJOR EQUIPMENTS 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR PROCESS RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT PROJECT COST ESTIMATION PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE MANPOWER REQUIREMENT LIST OF ANNEXURES 13. ANNEXURE – I KERC / KPTCL POLICY LIST OF APPENDICES 14. 15. APPENDIX – I BAGASSE ANALYSIS APPENDIX – II CANE TRASH ANALYSIS 124 125 118 – 123 85 – 97 98 – 104 105 – 109 110 – 114 115 – 117 1–8 9 – 11 12 – 16 17 – 19 20 – 36 37 – 39 40 – 47 48 – 59 60 – 84 16. 17. APPENDIX – III RICE HUSK ANALYSIS APPENDIX – IV COAL ANALYSIS LIST OF DRAWINGS 126 127 18. DRAWING – I BAGASSE BALANCE – SEASON OPERATION 128 19. 20. 21. DRAWING – II STEAM BALANCE – SEASON OPERATION DRAWING – III POWER BALANCE – SEASON OPERATION DRAWING – IV STEAM BALANCE – NON CRUSHING OPERATION 129 130 131 22. DRAWING – V POWER BALANCE – NON CRUSHING OPERATION 132 23. DRAWING – VI HEAT & MASS BALANCE - SEASON OPERATION 133 24. DRAWING – VII HEAT & MASS BALANCE – NON CRUSHING SEASON 134 25. 26.......
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...Sugar has long been an essential crop of the Caribbean countries and the news of reform has left the islands scrambling to maintain a viable economy. In order to understand how the islands economies became so dependent on sugar, it must be made clear how sugar became so important, the extent of the Caribbean's dependency on preferential pricing and how the preferences have been reformed. The sugar industry has been a part of the Caribbean since shortly after being discovered and colonized by people of the western world. Its importance can be seen through significant historical changes such as slavery, indentured servitude and finally through independence. The sugar industry creates a significant amount of jobs for the uneducated residents of the Caribbean. According to McDonald (2003) it was estimated in two thousand and three that the industry employed approximately one hundred and twenty-five thousand workers in both direct and indirect employment that otherwise may be unemployed. It served as a tourist attraction and was a major ingredient in the production of Molasses and Rum, both of which generated significant export revenues. Most importantly, sugar exported to the member countries of the European Union generated significant revenues. The European Union (EU) sugar program as it was original implemented in nineteen sixty-eight, served to facilitate competitiveness by compensating intuitional price cuts for sugar with direct income payments. The program consisted of a......
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Impact of Government Allocation on the Sugar Industry
...|Name: Ritika Kanodia | |Roll No. 30 | |Semester: 6th | |Supervisor: Mr. Shantanu P.Chakraborty | |Industry: Sugar Industry | |Title: Impact of Government allocation on the Sugar Industry | Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Undergraduate Degree in Bachelor of Business Administration (Honours) J. D. Birla Institute at the Jadavpur University at Kolkata 13/06/2011 The Controller of Examination, Jadavpur University, Kolkata Respected sir, This research work has been done by me and is an original work. The references used have been mentioned in the bibliography. My University Registration no. is 104748 of 2008-2009 and my sixth semester examination...
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.... At 5:30 am the slaves would be sent to the fields with their breakfast. A register would be called and if a slave was absent he would be beaten. Their breakfast at 8:00, consisted of Boiled Yam, Eddoes and Okra which were all seasoned with Salt and Pepper. Work on the sugar Plantation now started, this is where the majority of the Slaves worked. It continued till 12:00 and was a very tiring time. The sugar cane can range from a height of 4 feet to 12 feet or more. Knives were used to cut the stems of the cane and then were at the end of the day, carried to a sugar mill. Here a different set of workers would squeeze the sugar cane to get the precious juice that is used to create sugar. This was a very important job so the smallest mistakes would be punished severely. From 12:00 to 2:00 pm the slaves were allowed to leave their work and have dinner. These often consisted of meaty dishes, as they contain lots of protein which is needed to use muscle. .From 2:00 to 6:00 the slaves had to continue with their work. This was often the time when problems would occur. Many weak slaves would faint in the evenings from extreme heat, and overworking. If this was to happen they would be whipped. At 6:00 the slaves were allowed to return to their huts. After eating bread and butter, or some other light dinner at their hut, they would either be sent to bed, or in the summer forced to work in the boiling house. 3. When the African Slaves were enslaved, they sang slave songs.......
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...to talk about “What factors really determine the price of sugar in the USA?” based on the Financial Times article “Commodities: A sweet deal”. I divided the presentation in 3 parts. Firstly, I give a short introduction. Secondly, I speak about the determining factors and lastly I give a short summarise about the topic. [Click] 2. Slide: Ok, let’s start with the frame conditions of this topic. Sugar was once a luxury product and the demand for sweets is in our genes. Today, you can get sugar everywhere. [Click] The sugar market is one of the world’s strongest protected and supported market for agricultural products. [Click] The USA is the fifth-largest sugar producer in the world [Click] and the U.S. sugar policy used quotas and restricted imports to balance supply and demand. [Click] The purpose of these restrictions [Click] is the increase of the sugar price in the U.S. market. [Click] The question is “What really influences the sugar price in the USA?” We will see on the next slides. [Click] 3. Slide: On this slide we see on the left side the Price-Quantity-Diagram with the red supply curve and the blue demand curve, [Click] which is extensively inelastic. [Click] That’s means the percentage change in the price is higher than the percentage change in the quantity. A good example of an inelastic demand is the U.S. sugar-market, which is very price sensitive. Ok, let’s look at the supply curve. [Click] If the sugar supply rises, the supply curve shifts to the right side.......
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Scenerio Analysis of Sugar Industry in India
...sales quota in sugar industry CHENNAI: Food and agriculture minister Sharad Pawar said on Friday he favoured ending the government's role in fixing sales quota in sugar industry, adding that the government would consider withdrawing controls on the sector after assessing the likely sugar production in 2010-11 crop year. The minister said a decision on decontrolling the sugar industry could be taken if there is good production in the next crop year starting October. At present, the government controls the sugar industry right from fixing the support price of sugarcane and allocating the monthly quota for mills to sale in the open market. "We welcome the minister's statement on decontrol of the sugar market, which was long-awaited," Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA) deputy director general M N Rao told a news agency. Sugar industry is heavily regulated, right from cane to sale of sugar. There is a minimum support price for sugarcane and over and above that there is a state advisory price. Sugarcane command area is determined and approved by state governments. Sugar mills can't sell freely in the open market as there are quotas for open sale. "There are multiple spokes in the wheel now. Besides, with nearly 12 to 15 crore people involved with the sugar business, we need to see in what form and shape the decontrol happens. Ideally, total decontrol is the best," K Jayachandra, joint MD of Empee Sugars and Chemicals, told TOI. Pawar acknowledged that sugar sector......
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Sweet Deals: the Phillipine Sugar Industry
...Prof. Mesina 23 March 2011 Sweet Deals: The Philippine Sugar Industry History From the 19th century until 1970s, sugar has been one of the most important agricultural products in the Philippines. Philippines have been one of top exporter of sugar in the world and the sugar has been one of the pillar of the agricultural Philippine Economy. Jose Maria Zabaleta in his paper discusses the Philippines’ comparative advantage in the sugar industry: “Comparative Advantage The middle islands of the Visayas and the northernmost island of Luzon lie in the typhoon belt of the Pacific Ocean, and its eastern seaboard, often visited by as many as twenty hurricanes a year two or three of which are often considered as destructive, is not suitable for maize, many tree crops, and year round agriculture. Sugarcane, however, grows luxuriantly and well, and suffers little from typhoon damage. It is, therefore, a crop of preference not only because its product, sugar, has a long shelf life and is easily transported, but because the farmer is never really in danger of losing his entire harvest because of its resiliency.”(Jose Maria Zabaleta) Sugar started to be commercially produced in the Philippines during the 18th century. Since then the sugar industry flourished to become a major commodity for export. In the 20th century, the greater demand for sugar in the American Market resulted into growth of the industry. (Jose Maria T. Zabaleta) The United States gave......
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Corn Flour Mill Industry Characteristics Introduction
...Learning about corn flour mill(http://www.wintone-machinery.com/products/) industry characteristics and invest in corn processing industry with advisably.What’s corn flour mill industry characteristic? 1.The industry adopts electricity as the main power, has high mechanization degree, but low technology content. Flour processing in our country at present hasn’t formed a reasonable system. Less investment for professional development of science and technology for the production of flour and production equipment is relatively backward, leading to production at a lower level circulation, belong to one of the industries with excess capacity. 2. The material is given priority to with local materials, market admittance is strict. Most of the industry based on agricultural area, benefit on the acquisition of raw materials. After processing, products sell to different types of enterprises; as countries pay more and more attention to food safety, according to "food safety law" regulation, products must pass a prefecture-level flour quality and technical supervision department approval, before entering the market. 3. Low value-added products, short production cycle, simple technology. Alternative raw material is not strong, the product difference is not large, bigger production capacity, and different flour quality, types in the different sized factories, the purpose is roughly same, belong to the same target market, product production condition limited by the concentration......
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Analysing the Impact of the Introduction of Hybrid Cars on the Automobile Industry in the Uk
...student's own work and that it has not, in whole or part, been presented elsewhere for assessment. Where material has been used from other sources it has been properly acknowledged in accordance with the University's Regulations regarding Cheating and Plagiarism. 000636368 Tutor's comments Ngufor Chiawah Hilary NGUFOR CHIAWAH HILARY-000636368 Grade Awarded___________ Moderation required: yes/no For Office Use Only__________ Tutor______________________ Final Grade_________ Date _______________ ANALYSING THE IMPACT OF THE INTRODUCTION OF HYBRID CARS ON THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN THE UK Abstract Hybrid cars are an emerging aspect in contemporary automobile technology. Hybrid cars have existed for over one hundred years. However the benefits from such cars have not been acknowledged for all this time until in recent years. Generally speaking a hybrid car is one which uses two power engines to pull the vehicle. The introduction of hybrid cars has been hailed greatly, mostly by international organisations, governments, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs,) and individuals. Many car manufacturers are continuously getting involved with the production of hybrid cars with Toyota being the highest producer of the cars and having the highest sales . These cars are most used in Europe. Hybrid cars were introduced to combat the effects of the gasoline cars vis-a-vis environmental concerns, but also for political reasons. Research shows that the carbon emission......
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...Sugar I. Introduction A. Rat addicted to cocaine given two plates, one cocaine one sugar a. Rat disregards the plate of cocaine and feasts on the sugar B. What is and what makes sugar so addicting? C. Why is sugar almost unavoidable? II. What is sugar? A. Sugar is a general term used to describe a class of molecules called carbohydrates. Sugars are considered simple carbohydrates which are found in fruits and vegetables also. 1. Sugar has a very vital role in providing fuel for our neuronal nerve cells. 2. There are a lot of forms of sugar such as fructose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, lactose, dextrose, and more. III. How it works A. You eat the sugar 1. The sugar activates the sweet taste receptors that send signals to the brain, activating the brains reward system. This is ok, in moderation. B. The sugar hits your stomach 1. There are receptors also in the stomach that send signals to your brain. Sugar is unfortunately empty in nutrition which leaves you still hungry. C. Dopamine is released in the brain in large amounts 1. The chemical released in the brain for pleasure. But the more often you release dopamine from a particular source, the more you grow a tolerance to it. 2. Due to these releases and the tolerance build up, there are people who are susceptible to becoming addicted to these sugary food. D. When sugar is broken down in the body it becomes two simple sugars, Glucose and Fructose. a. Glucose is in every cell and is produced by our......
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...Unit 3: Introduction to Marketing Unit code: Y/502/5411 QCF Level 3: BTEC National Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60 Aim and purpose The aim and purpose of this unit is to give learners an understanding of how marketing, research and planning and the marketing mix are used by all organisations. Unit introduction Marketing is at the heart of every organisation’s activity. Its importance is also growing in the non-commercial, public and voluntary sectors. Also, at the heart of marketing is the customer. This unit will introduce learners to some of the tools and techniques all types of organisations use to achieve their objectives. Firstly, learners will explore how different types of organisations use marketing principles to meet the needs of their customers and achieve their objectives. The constraints under which organisations operate are important and learners will study the legal requirements and voluntary codes that affect marketing. Learners will then go on to investigate how organisations collect data through market research and turn it into useful information which can be analysed and used to plan their marketing activities. The segmentation and targeting of groups of customers is a key marketing technique and this is studied in detail. This includes the different bases for segmentation of both consumer and business markets. Next, learners will examine how a marketing mix is developed to meet the needs and aspirations of...
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...Stage dramas are created to engage viewers and convey the themes and ideas of the playwright. Stage dramas rely largely on spoken language. Through spoken language characters are created and refined. Davis’ language choices have developed the characters in a way that portrays the characters to be exaggerated colonial stereotypes. Characters are the most vital element of a stage drama; they create the link between the audience and the drama. It is through Jack Davis’ writing that we are led to feel particular ways about most of the characters. No sugar is a play that makes an impact. Jack Davis has chosen not to construct realistic characters, but instead characters that fit into and even sometimes challenge the stereotypes placed on Aboriginal people. Although some characters are exaggerated stereotypes there are also many that aren’t. Every character is constructed in a different way, through dialogue and action. No sugar focuses on the hardships faced by an - albeit stereotypical of the 1930’s - Aboriginal family during the continued colonisation of Australia. Gran is the matriarchal figure of the family; she is the one that tries to ensure the continuation of the Nyoongah culture. She is characterised as strong and often stubborn. Her stubborn attitude throughout the play represents, in some ways, Aboriginal stereotypes. The way that Davis has constructed her creates a bond between her and the audience; the audience becomes attached to her. Through Davis’ choice, Gran’s...
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...How Sugar is Made - the History It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India. In 510 BC the Emperor Darius of what was then Persia invaded India where he found "the reed which gives honey without bees". The secret of cane sugar, as with many other of man's discoveries, was kept a closely guarded secret whilst the finished product was exported for a rich profit. It was the major expansion of the Arab peoples in the seventh century AD that led to a breaking of the secret. When they invaded Persia in 642 AD they found sugar cane being grown and learnt how sugar was made. As their expansion continued they established sugar production in other lands that they conquered including North Africa and Spain. Sugar was only discovered by western Europeans as a result of the Crusades in the 11th Century AD. Crusaders returning home talked of this "new spice" and how pleasant it was. The first sugar was recorded in England in 1099. The subsequent centuries saw a major expansion of western European trade with the East, including the importation of sugar. It is recorded, for instance, that sugar was available in London at "two shillings a pound" in 1319 AD. This equates to about US$100 per kilo at today's prices so it was very much a luxury. In the 15th century AD, European sugar was refined in Venice, confirmation that even then when quantities were small, it was difficult to transport sugar as a food grade product....
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i. India has the largest area under sugar cane cultivation in the world. The yield per hectare is extremely low (about 70 tons), when compared to Java, Hawaii, Peru, Rhodesia (more than 150 tons per hectare). Even within the country, the yield is higher in South India than in North India.
ii. In India about one-third of the sugar cane production is utilised for making gur and khandsari. This causes shortage of raw material for the sugar mills.
iii. The sugar industry has a seasonal character and the crushing season normally varies between 4 and 7 months in a year. Thus, the mill and the workers remain idle for almost half of the year. This creates financial problems.
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iv. The average rate of sugar recovery from the sugar cane is less than 10 per cent. This recovery rate is low, when compared to other sugar producing areas like Java, Hawaii and Australia, upto 14 per cent.
v. Most of the sugar mills in our country are of small size with a crushing capacity of about 1200 tons per day. Thus, most of them are not viable.
vi. Most of the sugar mills in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are more than 50 years old. These mills are working with old and outdated machinery. Thus, low production reduces the amount of profit and finally makes the unit sick.
vii. The cost of sugar production in India is one of the highest in the world. This is due to high sugar cane cost, uneconomic production process, inefficient technology and high taxes exercised by the state and the central governments.
viii. The main by-products of the sugar industry are bagasse and molasses. The industry faces problems in disposing these by-products, especially under pollution control devices.
ix. The government policy, based on dual price system, discourages the entrepreneurs to make investment for further growth and improvement.
The profit margin should be increased for future developments.
x. The per capita annual consumption of sugar is about 10 kg in India, whereas it is about 20 kg in the world.