Useful Things To Know About Phd Thesis Research Paper

Many PhD students are now in the final throes of writing their thesis. Turning years of research into a single, coherent piece of work can be tough, so we asked for tips from supervisors and recent PhD graduates. We were inundated with tweets and emails and @AcademiaObscura helpfully created a Storify of the tweets. Below is a selection of the best tips.

1) Make sure you meet the PhD requirements for your institution
“PhD students and their supervisors often presume things without checking. One supervisor told his student that a PhD was about 300 pages long so he wrote 300 pages. Unfortunately the supervisor had meant double-spaced, and the student had written single-spaced. Getting rid of 40,000 extra words with two weeks to go is not recommended.” (Hannah Farrimond, lecturer in medical sociology, Exeter University)

2) Keep perspective
“Everyone wants their thesis to be amazing, their magnum opus. But your most important work will come later. Think of your PhD as an apprenticeship. Your peers are unlikely to read your thesis and judge you on it. They are more likely to read any papers (articles, chapters, books) that result from it.” (Dean D’Souza, PhD in cognitive neuroscience, Birkbeck, University of London)

3) Write the introduction last
“Writing the introduction and conclusion together will help to tie up the thesis together, so save it for the end.” (Ashish Jaiswal, PhD in business education, University of Oxford)

4) Use apps
“Trello is a project management tool (available as a smartphone app) which allows you to create ‘boards’ on which to pin all of your outstanding tasks, deadlines, and ideas. It allows you to make checklists too so you know that all of your important stuff is listed and to-hand, meaning you can focus on one thing at a time. It’s satisfying to move notes into the ‘done’ column too.” (Lucy Irving, PhD in psychology, Middlesex University)

5) Address the unanswered questions
“There will always be unanswered questions – don’t try to ignore or, even worse, obfuscate them. On the contrary, actively draw attention to them; identify them in your conclusion as areas for further investigation. Your PhD viva will go badly if you’ve attempted to disregard or evade the unresolved issues that your thesis has inevitably opened up.” (Michael Perfect, PhD in English literature, University of Cambridge)

6) Buy your own laser printer
“A basic monochrome laser printer that can print duplex (two-sided) can be bought online for less than £100, with off-brand replacement toners available for about £30 a pop. Repeatedly reprinting and editing draft thesis chapters has two very helpful functions. Firstly, it takes your work off the screen and onto paper, which is usually easier to proof. Secondly, it gives you a legitimate excuse to get away from your desk.” (James Brown, PhD in architectural education, Queen’s University Belfast)

7) Checking is important
“On days when your brain is too tired to write, check quotations, bibliography etc so you’re still making progress.” (Julia Wright, professor of English at Dalhousie University, Canada)

8) Get feedback on the whole thesis
“We often get feedback on individual chapters but plan to get feedback from your supervisor on the PhD as a whole to make sure it all hangs together nicely.” (Mel Rohse, PhD in peace studies, University of Bradford)

9) Make sure you know when it will end
“Sometimes supervisors use optimistic words such as ‘You are nearly there!’ Ask them to be specific. Are you three months away, or do you have six months’ worth of work? Or is it just a month’s load?” (Rifat Mahbub, PhD in women’s studies, University of York)

10) Prepare for the viva
“Don’t just focus on the thesis – the viva is very important too and examiners’ opinions can change following a successful viva. Remember that you are the expert in your specific field, not the examiners, and ask your supervisor to arrange a mock viva if practically possible.” (Christine Jones, head of school of Welsh and bilingual studies, University of Wales Trinity St David)

11) Develop your own style
“Take into account everything your supervisor has said, attend to their suggestions about revisions to your work but also be true to your own style of writing. What I found constructive was paying attention to the work of novelists I enjoy reading. It may seem that their style has nothing to do with your own field of research, but this does not matter. You can still absorb something of how they write and what makes it effective, compelling and believable.” (Sarah Skyrme, PhD in sociology, Newcastle University)

12) Remember that more is not always better
“A PhD thesis is not a race to the highest page count; don’t waste time padding.” (Francis Woodhouse, PhD in mathematical biology, University of Cambridge)

13) Get a buddy
“Find a colleague, your partner, a friend who is willing to support you. Share with them your milestones and goals, and agree to be accountable to them. This doesn’t mean they get to hassle or nag you, it just means someone else knows what you’re up to, and can help to check if your planning is realistic and achievable.” (Cassandra Steer, PhD in criminology, University of Amsterdam)

14) Don’t pursue perfectionism
“Remember that a PhD doesn’t have to be a masterpiece. Nothing more self-crippling than perfectionism.” (Nathan Waddell, lecturer in modernist literature, Nottingham University)

15) Look after yourself
“Go outside. Work outside if you can. Fresh air, trees and sunshine do wonders for what’s left of your sanity.” (Helen Coverdale, PhD in law, LSE)

• Do you have any tips to add? Share your advice in the comments below.

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From a senior PhD student to a starting PhD student, this is the graduate school advice nobody will tell you but that you need to succeed and get your PhD title.

We all join graduate school with rainbows and butterfly ideas in our minds. We will cure cancer, do research in interesting topics, learn a lot, oh! the scientific method, meet smart people.

That’s cute.

Guess what? Life as a PhD student is much different.

Here’s what I discovered during my PhD that was totally different from what I had imagined. This is my graduate school advice for new PhD students.

Graduate School Advice 1: Your #1 Goal Is To Publish Peer Reviewed Articles

Assuming that you want to finish your PhD and become a “doctor”, you have to publish peer reviewed articles. This is the one thing that if you do, you will get your title hands down.

Isn’t the goal to be an expert in your field?

Being an expert without peer reviewed publications equals to being an expert without a PhD. Click to tweet

It sounds materialistic, specially when compared to this romantic idea of doing science for the progress of human knowledge. Sadly it is how the game is played. This is the rule. Publish or perish.

People are trying to change the game with Open Access, Open Data, Open Science, and writing their results in blogs (if you do not have one, start a science blog right now). These are all very needed initiatives that are changing the scientific game. But still, in order to win the game you need publications (in The Netherlands, where I do my PhD, you need 4).

So the best graduate school advice you could get is write, write, and write some more.

Graduate School Advice 2: The Most Difficult Part Is To Stay Motivated

Since a PhD involves diving very deep into a topic, one might expect that learning very complicated stuff would be the hardest part. If you don’t learn fast enough and well enough, you will not finish your PhD. Right? Not true.

The most likely reason for not finishing a PhD, despite not having publications, is … don’t laugh … quitting your PhD. Click to tweet

What can make you quit your PhD?

It happens usually half way a PhD’s duration. You won’t feel you had enough progress. You will be lost in the middle of an ocean of uncertainty. You will still have in front of you a couple of painful years to endure. The alternative of a bigger pay-check in industry will look really tempting at that point.

That period is called the Valley Of Shit or the Phase 3 of PhD Motivation, the “Crisis of Meaning” . Almost every graduate student goes through this existential crisis.

You just need to realise that it happens to everybody and that you can overcome it. Focusing on constant little progress helps more than evaluating if a bigger goal has been achieved.

Something that worked for me was to start your science blog and share with others my experiences (see how a science blog saved my PhD). It helps to put all your troubles in perspective. If you need help starting a science blog and growing your academic footprint check our videotutorial.

Graduate School Advice 3: You’d Better Finish Your PhD Fast

As you see it sucks to quit your PhD half way. Such a waste of time for going away without a PhD tittle.

Do you know what sucks even more? To spend 4, 5, 6 years and not finish your PhD. Ouch!

I have seen this happening to many people and it has to do with two causes.

One, you realise a bit, just a bit, too late that this is not going to work. Seriously, do you really need 5 years to decide you won’t have enough results and papers to defend your thesis?

Please, evaluate every 6 months if you are still on track, if you are going to make it and correct direction if needed.

In a PhD you should track progress and correct direction regularly, don’t wait till it is too late. Click to tweet

Two, after 4 years you are almost there, you have enough data to write those two last articles and the introduction of your thesis. It feels so close and obvious you are going to get your PhD title that you decide to start a postdoc or a new job. Wrong choice, Sir!!!!

The stress and pressure to integrate in the new position won’t leave enough room for you to write those last pages. Sure, you are Superman and you are going to write after dinner and during the weekends. I have seen many people failing at this to believe it is a good strategy.

So finish your PhD fast and on time, avoid delaying it. And please, do not start  new job until you really finish your PhD.

Graduate School Advice 4: You Are The Expert In Your Field Of Research

We all regard our supervisors, principal investigators and promotors as a source of infinite knowledge. They are like superhumans.

One common source of frustration is to ask your PhD supervisors for help and realise they know as much as aunt Martha does. If these brilliant guys can’t answer your problems, how are you expected to answer them?

This is why you are here. To answer those questions your bosses cannot answer.

At the end of your PhD you should be the expert on your topic, and not your professor. Click to tweet

You can very well approach your superiors with a problem and propose several solutions. Give arguments for each one. In this context, they might be able to use their scientific instinct, the so called educated guess, to give you a hand.

Graduate School Advice 5: You Won’t Make A (Big) Dent In The Universe

We know you are not in graduate school for the money. Probably you want to contribute to the knowledge of mankind, fix a problem or discover something new. Fair enough.

The sad truth is that for the majority of PhDs, their research will get noticed and used by a handful of other researchers. And that is fine. Most of scientists make big contributions after a lifetime of research, not in a couple years.

The contribution of your PhD to science will be as noticeable as a fart in the middle of a tornado. Click to tweet

Then why do it a PhD in the first place? Well, you need to start somewhere and a PhD can give you the tools and skills necessary for achieving higher scientific goals.

Graduate School Advice 6: Key Skills In Graduate School: Reading, Writing, Networking

In kindergarden you learn to read, write, paint and play with other children. Ah those relaxed days when your only worries were choosing the colour of the crayon or if you were going to play hide and seek.

Graduate school is the kindergarden of scientists. You learn again to read, write and interact with others. Click to tweet

That’s what you need to learn as a PhD school.

  • Reading: you need to skim over a scientific paper and in a few seconds decide if you should invest the next 30 minutes reading it in depth. If you do, you should easily find what is the novelty of the research presented, if it can be useful for your work, and how does it compare to what you are doing.
  • Writing: in academic papers you need to get to the point. You need to be comprehensive and concise at the same time. You need to be technical yet readable. And if your mother tongue is not English you should work hard not to sound like Google Translate.
  • Networking: although some scientists would love to work in a cave away from the rest of the community, you should interact with other peers. Networking can bring you possible collaborators and chances of writing more papers, your new postdoc position, new ideas, or understanding form fellow PhD students that are also going through the Valley of Shit.

Graduate School Advice 7: Pimp Your Online Reputation And Grow Your Academic Footprint

Traditionally scientists would grow their network and get exposure by publishing papers and attending conference. In this new world, a great piece of graduate school advice is to take care of your online presence.

A PhD student should take care of his online reputation from day 1. Click to tweet

While you should still do these things during your PhD, you could make use of some digital tools to be a better scientist and to grow your online reputation, visibility and academic footprint.

There are 3 key online tools that you can use to grow your online presence as a scientist: a science blog, Twitter, and LinkedIn, aka the social media trinity for scientists.

If you use these three tools you will stop being invisible for Google. People will find you and discover what your research is about.

You can use a science blog to share your opinion about your field of research. You can also share materials like posters and presentations. Or even a description of your papers in simple words.

If you what to start a science blog but don’t know how, check check our videotutorial “Grow Your Academic Footprint With A Science Blog”.

With Twitter you can connect with fellow scientists, share your news and also discover new research related stuff.

LinkedIn can become your online CV, a place where others can easily see your skills, publications and education.

In Next Scientist we are crazy about the digital world, but do not forget to transfer some of these online relations to the physical world. Try to meet face to face with some of your online buddies, either invite them to visit your group, go for a coffee, or arrange that you will meet in a scientific conference.

Graduate School Advice 8: Time Management Rules From The 4 Hour Workweek That Change The Game

If you haven’t read The 4 Hour Workweek yet, buy it, devour it and apply it to your PhD. It is stuffed with great ideas that you can turn into graduate school advice, it will revolutionise the way you see the world.

  • You want to be effective, not just efficient: being efficient at something unimportant is useless. Being effective at finishing important things makes a big difference.
  • Pareto’s Law 80/20: focus your efforts in that 20% of tasks that bring 80% of the benefits (like writing papers). Remove the 80% of tasks that only contribute to 20% of the results (like revising constantly your time management system).
  • Parkinson’s Law: set tight deadlines, the last minute rush will activate your creativity. If you decide you can do a task in  2 days, guess what? It will take your 2 days to accomplish it. If you would assign 3 hours to it, you would still finish it.
  • You are scared, so is everybody else: when talking to other people, giving presentations, applying for that position, it is scary, but everybody else would be scared.
  • Have near-impossible goals: these are the goals that motivate you and that are worth working hard and walking the extra mile. When would you work harder? When you have to prepare a poster for a regional meeting or when you have to give a talk at an international conference in New York? I thought so.

Graduate School Advice 9: Deliver Fast And Often, Get Feedback

A great piece of graduate school advice I got when I started was:

At the start of a PhD get some little results fast to boost motivation, don’t go first for big results. Click to tweet

This is great advice because having some small results will a) give you a sense of progress, so your motivation will go up and b) give you something to present (maybe as a poster) and discuss with other scientists.

In your daily work, you should aim at “good enough” and “deliver soon” instead of “perfect delivered in a few more days”. If you deliver intermediate results or a draft of a paper, you have the chance of getting feedback soon and correct your direction if needed.

Bear with me: done is better than perfect.

Don’t wait till you have the perfect figures or till you are not ashamed of the quality of your work. You need to make progress and you need the feedback of your supervisors to do so.

Get rid of your shyness and “move fast, break things, deliver, ship” on a daily basis.

Graduate School Advice 10: Enjoy The Ride

The graduate school advice we shared might sound a bit too harsh. We just want to point out how a PhD really is, so you are not surprised later on. But do not let this discourage you.

Graduate school has many perks that make it a great experience. You will meet interesting people and you will have the chance to explore your own ideas and to be creative.

Remember that you are still a student, so enjoy life like a student. Do not take everything too seriously and make use of your free time.

In some cases you might get a salary or stipend. Isn’t it great to be a student but with money?

For those cases where you don’t get paid or your salary is microscopic, you can easily make a second income in graduate school and enjoy the life of a student.

You have the chance to travel. Get results and present them in conferences. Ask your boss to pay for the trip or apply for a travelling stipend for students. Find collaborators and get them to invite you to visit their lab.

Graduate school is a great time, make good use of your chance of being here.

 

Now you know how it really is at graduate school. You have almost everything you need to succeed in your new PhD life. What’s missing? You will find in the following posts of these series.

You can also have a look at these great books for PhD students.

Thinking Of Applying to Graduate School? Check These Sample Letters For Graduate School

When applying to graduate school you are going to submit several letters. The goal is to give a good impression and get invited for an interview. You should adapt  to your needs a sample letter that has been successfully used.

[note color=”#efdcde”]Check our letters for graduate school, which include a statement of purpose for graduate school and a recommendation letter for graduate school. You can get the letters for graduate school here.[/note]

Additionally you can get sample letters you will need throughout graduate school, for instance when you are submitting your first scientific paper to a journal or when you are applying to a scientific conference.

Check the letters for graduate school here.

Do you want to be better at Academic Writing?

Is “Write Better Scientific Papers” one of your goals? Do you have trouble writing your PhD thesis?

If the answer is yes, I have something good for you. Keep reading..

Marialuisa Aliotta is a scientist, blogger and creator of the course  Hands On Writing: How To Master Academic Writing In The Sciences.

She has helped hundreds of scientists to write better, specially PhD students. She knows exactly where you are struggling with your academic writing.

With this course you will be able to:

  • learn how to ban procrastination and stay on track with your writing project.
  • finally complete a chapter of your thesis in just a few weeks.
  • draft your paper without struggles or anxiety.
  • improve your productivity and experience a sense of real achievement.
  • write efficiently without wasting hour upon hour.
  • gain confidence and enjoy your writing project.

If you want a summary of the details of the course, this is what you will get:

  • All the academic writing know-how you could image delivered via video in easy to follow modules.
  • Worksheets and templates so you don’t have to start writing from scratch.
  • Supporting materials to create tables and figures, because an article is not just text.
  • Plenty of bonus materials (for instance on productivity) for the academic writing die-hards out there.

The response from everyone has been incredible. This is the course I wish I had followed at the beginning of my PhD.

Click here to get the Hands On Writing course now

 

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