Widely adopted by universities, colleges, and secondary schools, the MLA Handbook gives step-by-step advice on every aspect of writing research papers, from selecting a topic to submitting the completed paper. For over half a century, the MLA Handbook is the guide millions of writers have relied on.
The seventh edition is a comprehensive, up-to-date guide to research and wrWidely adopted by universities, colleges, and secondary schools, the MLA Handbook gives step-by-step advice on every aspect of writing research papers, from selecting a topic to submitting the completed paper. For over half a century, the MLA Handbook is the guide millions of writers have relied on.
The seventh edition is a comprehensive, up-to-date guide to research and writing in the online environment. It provides an authoritative update of MLA documentation style for use in student writing, including simplified guidelines for citing works published on the Web and new recommendations for citing several kinds of works, such as digital files and graphic narratives.
Every copy of the seventh edition of the MLA Handbook comes with a code for accessing the accompanying Web site. New to this edition, the Web site provides
- the full text of the print volume of the MLA Handbook
- over two hundred additional examples
- several research-project narratives--stories, with sample papers, that illustrate the steps successful students take in researching and writing papers
- searching of the entire site, including the full text of the MLA Handbook
- continuous access throughout the life of the seventh edition of the MLA Handbook...more
Paperback, Sixth Edition, 360 pages
Published May 1st 2003 by Modern Language Assn of Amer (first published 1977)
In-text citations are brief, parenthetical references to your sources that point readers to the full citation in your Works Cited page.
Rather than belabor the point or summarize what you've already said, a strong conclusion should "take your readers slightly by surprise and yet seem exactly right" (Zinsser 64).
- Include the author's last name and the appropriate page number(s) in parentheses immediately following the cited material.
- Do not use commas inside the parentheses.
- Quotation marks come before the parentheses; sentence punctuation follows them.
Entire Works: If you are citing an entire work, you can omit page numbers.
Signal Phrases: You don't need to include the author's name in the parentheses when context clarifies whom you are citing (e.g., you have used the author's name as part of your signal phrase, you have cited the same source immediately preceding the current citation.) If you are in doubt, include the author's last name.
In On Writing Well, William Zinsser argues a strong conclusion should "take your readers slightly by surprise and yet seem exactly right" (64).
Multiple Works by Same Author: If your Works Cited list has more than one work by the same author, include the work title in the in-text citation, separated by a comma.
(Zinsser, On Writing Well 64)
Multiple Authors with Same Last Name: If your Works Cited list has more than one author with the same last name, include the initial of the author's first name in the in-text citation.
(W. Zinsser 64)
Multiple Authors of a Single Work: If three or fewer authors, include all in your in-text citation; if four or more, list the first author only followed by the abbrevation "et al."
(Rodriguez, Jones, and Bartell 273)
(Rodriguez et al. 273)
Indirect or Quoted Material: Find the original source if possible. If not, use the abbreviation "qtd. in" for "quoted in".
(qtd. in Liu 392)
Ebooks: If the ebook has stable page numbers (i.e., page numbers remain consistent regardless of device used or font size), use those as you would a print book. If the ebook has reflowable pages, do not use page numbers. Instead, cite the section or chapter if possible.
(Zinsser, ch. 9)
If the ebooks does not have stable page numbers, sections, or chapters, cite the work as a whole.